The Kayin, Kayah, Mon, and Tanitharyi region borders Thailand, making border transit and migrant workers – and remittances they send home – a fundamental part of the local economy, although local agriculture suffers due to mass labour migration. The region is significantly underdeveloped when compared to central Myanmar, but it holds potential for both tourism and sustainable economic activity, and the local civil society is especially robust in Mon and Karen. The region is affected by numerous ongoing conflicts between a variety of militarised ethnic groups and subgroups, some of whom partner with the Myanmar military to engage in natural resources extraction, often despite civilian protest. A protracted refugee crisis persists in the area, with approximately 96,000 Myanmar refugees still living in camps on the Thai side of the border. Negotiation for access with armed groups is often the main barrier to humanitarian action.